A minha orientadora (Profª. Maria Aparecida) me indicou a leitura desse livro e isso me fez despertar para tantas coisas de minha prática que estava fora dos prumos ou do nível de excelência… Que esse livro seja mais que um material, seja uma inspiração!
>>> Ressalto que estou fazendo a leitura do original em Língua Inglesa (L2), mas farei os posts em língua materna (L1) e em L2.
“This is a partly due to the recent availability of computerised databases of words (or corpora), and partly due to the development of new approaches to the language teaching which are much more ‘word-centred’, such as the ´lexical approach’.” (THORNBURY, 2007, p. vi)
´A word is a microcosm of human consciousness´. (Vygotsky) (THORNBURY, op. cit., p. 1)
[…] Different aspects of what constitutes a word. (THORNBURY, op. cit., p. 3)
Word classes– nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverb, prepositions, conjunction and determiner. (THORNBURY, op. cit., p. 3).
Grammatical words (or function words)- são as palavras estrututrais da língua. Não aceitam acréscimos. São fechadas. A última atualização foi no séc. XVI (promome them).Pertencem à essa categoria: prepositions, conjunctions, determiners and pronouns. (THORNBURY, op. cit., p. 4).
Content words– são aqueles que tornam o texto mais fácil de ser compreendido. são usadas na manchetes, placas de sinalização, mensagens de texto, jornais. São abertas e podem ser amplamente acrescentadas. Pertencem à essa categoria: nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. (THORNBURY, op. cit., p. 4).
Word families– it comprises the base word plus inflexions and its most common derivates. (THORNBURY, op. cit., p. 4)
Affixation– the use of add-ons (called affixes) to make a verb past (looked), for example, or a noun plural (bits).
- Inflexion- different grammatical forms of a word
- Derivate- a word that results from the addition of an affix to a root, and which has different meaning from the root. eg. play/ player/ replay/ playful)
Inflexions and derivates are both formed by the process of affixation. Note that –er and – ful are end-of-word affixes, or suffixes, while beggining-of-words, like re-, un-, pre-, de-, etc. are called prefixes.
Word formations- (THORNBURY, op. cit., p. 5)
- Compounding– the combining of two or more independent words (eg. second-hand, paperback)
- Blend– two words can be blended to form a new one (eg. breakfast + lunch- lunch)
- Conversion– a word can be co-opted from one part of speech and used as another. Typically nouns are converted into verbs (or ´verbed´). (eg. The shell impacted against a brick wall.)
- Clipping– new words can be coined by shortening long words. (ef. flu from influenza)
Multi-words units– Even when words are not joined to form compounds, we have seen that groups of more than one words, such as bits and pieces, do up, look for, can function as a meaningful unit with a fixed or semi-fixed form. They are often called simply lexical chunks. (THORNBURY, op. cit., p. 6)
- Sentences frames– they provide a structure on which to ´hang´a sentence, and are especially useful reducing planning time in rapid speech. (eg. It´s amazing how…)
- Phrasal verbs or multi–part verbs– especially common in informal language are compounds of verb + adverb (like swung around) , or verb + preposition (like look after). Because they are often idiomatic (like lay off) and can sometimes separated (laying more workes off and lay off more workers), they present a formidable challenge to learners.
- Lexeme-they are a group of words that function as a single meaning unit (eg. looking for)
Collocations– words ´couple up´to form compounds, and how they ´hunt in packs´in the shape of multi-words units. Two words are collocates if they occur together with more than chance frequency, such that, when we see ine, we can make a fairly safe bet that other is in the neighrbourhood. (eg. record number, once again) (THORNBURY, op. cit., p. 7)
>>> Descobri que as collocations não ocorrem seguidas. Deve haver palavra (s) entre elas. Além disso, collocations são frequentes e multi–words nem tanto.
Homonyns– words that share the same form but have unrelated meanings. (eg. She had long fair hair/ My pig won fisrt prize at Spikton Fair). (THORNBURY, op. cit., p. 8)
Homophones– words that have the ´same sound´. (eg. a windy day but a long and windy road) (THORNBURY, op. cit., p. 8)
Homographs– words that have the ´same writing´. (eg. a lead pipe, but a lead singer) (THORNBURY, op. cit., p. 8)
Polysemes– words that have multiples but related meanings , each of which. (eg. I held the picture up to the light./ You need to hold a work permit). (THORNBURY, op. cit., p. 9)
Synonyms– words that share a similiar meaning (eg. old, ancient, antique, aged, elderly) (THORNBURY, op. cit., p. 9)
Antonyms– words that have the opposite meaning (eg. old/ young) (THORNBURY, op. cit., p. 9)
Hyponyms– it is another –nym word that is useful when talking about way word meaning is related. A hyponimous relationship is a kind of relationship (hammer/ tool) (THORNBURY, op. cit., p. 9, 10)
Co-hyponims– they share the same ranking in a hierarchy: (hammer, saw, screwdriver). (THORNBURY, op. cit., p. 10)
Supeordinate– master word (tool)THORNBURY, op. cit., p. 10)
Meronym– the words that have a closed relation. (THORNBURY, op. cit., p. 10)
(Colocarei em L1 porque ficou difícil até para eu entender: HOLOMÍNIA– palavra que remete ao todo (ex: carro); MERONÍMIA– palavra que se refere às partes (roda, volante, bancos)
Lexical fields– words that have the same thematic relationship. (eg. Christmas-themed- snow, icicles and fireplace) (THORNBURY, op. cit., p. 10, 11)
Style– formal or informal (THORNBURY, op. cit., p. 11 )
Varieties: British, North American and Australian English (THORNBURY, op. cit., p. 11 )
Register– specific context (THORNBURY, op. cit., p. 11)