How words are learned? (Chapter 2) (How to teach vocabulary- Scott Thornbury, 2007)

Continuo a ler o livro  supra citado e confesso que estou apaixonada por ele. O problema só veio quando eu fui procurá-lo para comprar… Doeu no bolso!

No momento o que posso fazer é continuar condensando em doses homeopáticas toda instrução e reflexão que esse material tem me acrescentado:

“Without grammar very littlecan be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.” (THORNBURY, 2007, p. 13 apud WILKINS, David)

`If you spend most of your time studying grammar, your Engish will not improve very much. You will see most improvement if you learn more words and expressions. You can say little with grammar, but you can say almost anything with words! (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 13 apud WILKINS, David)

Communicative approach (1970´s) set the stage for a major re-think of the role of the vocabulary. (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 14)

Direct Method and audilingualism- priority to the teaching of grammatical structures. (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 14)

´Vocabulary acquisition is the largest and most important task facing the language learner.´(THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 14, SWAN and WALTER)

Most of language courses were (and still are) organised around grammar syllabuses. (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 14)

While vocabulary is largely a collection of itens, grammar is a system of rules. (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 14)

Grammar multiplies, while vocabulary merely adds. (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 14)

Lexical syllabus– a syllabus based on words that appear with a high degree of frequency in spoken and written English. (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 14)

Lexical chunks– fixed and semi-fixed structures of the language and in achieving fluency. (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 14)

Knowing a word involves knowing: form and meaning. (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 14)

Knowung the meaning of a word is not just knowing its dictionary meaning (or meanings)- it also means knowing the words commonly associated with it (its collocations) as well as its connotations, including its register and its cultural accretions. (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 15)

Receptive knowledge– understand words (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 15)

Productive knowledge– utter words (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 15)

Mental lexicon– how the words are organised and interconnected. (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 16)

Malapromism– the mistake we make offer an insight into the way the mental lexicon is organised. (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 16)

Words are also interconnected to their shared meaning. (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 17)

The brain is better disposed to begin disposed to begin the search via the meaning-based (theasaurus-like) lexicon than the form-based (dictionary-like). (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 17)

`Double entries´- one entry containing information about meaning and the other about form. (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 17)

Knowing a word, then, is the sum total of all conctions- semantic, syntactic, phonological, orthographic, morphological, cognitive, cultural and autobiographical. (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 17)

Labelling– etiquetagem(dog, doggie) (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 18)

Categorising skills– categorização (superordinate- animal/dog) (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 18)

Network building– a construction of complex web of words that are interconnected. (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 18)

Learning a second language involves both learning a new conceptual system, and constructing a new vocabulary network- a second mental lexicon. (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 18)

False friends– they are words that may appear to be equivalent, but whose meanings do not in fact correspond. Many cross-language errors are due to what it. (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 20)

Cognates– words that share with similar forms. (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 19)

There are many more REAL FRIENDS than FALSE FRIENDS. (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 19)

Strangers– words that have no equivalent in the L1 at all, since the very concept does not exist in the learner´s lexicon. (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 20)

Acquaintance

“Learning a second language is like moving to a new town- it makes to establish connection and turn acquaintance and a friend.” (THORNBURY, op.cit, p. 20)

Most adult second language learners, however, will, be lucky to have acquired 5,000 word families even after several years of study. (THORNBURY, 2007, p. 20)

18 years of exposure of L2 classroom = 1 year of exposure of L1 natural settings

>>> A composição de um texto em inglês é feita, em média, com a utilização das 100 palavras mais freqüentes da desta língua. (THORNBURY, 2007, p. 21)

A preocupation with vocabulary size, however, overlooks the importance off vocabulary depth. (THORNBURY, 2007, p. 22)

A good part of vocabulary has to be incidental. (THORNBURY, 2007, p. 22)

The short-term store (STS) is the brain´s capacity to hold a limited number of items of information for periods of time up to a few seconds. (THORNBURY, 2007, p. 23)

Long -term memory can be thought of as a kind of filing system. (THORNBURY, 2007, p. 24)

>>> A brief summary of some the research findings that are relevant to the subject of word learning:Repetition, retrieval (exercício de fixação), spacing (dar insumo parte a parte), pacing (o aluno organiza mentalmente o vocabulário aprendido sempre respeitando seu ritmo), use, cognitive depth(aprendizado enraizado), personal organazing (Organização a gosto pessoal), imaging (Associação à imagem da palavra), mnemonics, motivation (capacidade de se “alegrar” com o aprendizado), attention/arousal (excitação), affective depth (profundidade afetiva) (THORNBURY, 2007, p. 24-26)

It has been estimated that up 80 per cent of material is lost within 24 hours of initial learning. (THORNBURY, 2007, p. 26)

>>>What makes a word difficult?- pronunciation, spelling, lenght and complexity, grammar, meaning, range, connotation and idiomaticity. (THORNBURY, 2007, p. 27-28)


  • Erros mistakes

FORM-RELATED: mis-selections, misformation and pronounciation errors.
MEANING-RELATED: similar or related meaning
Sometimes errors can be both form- and meaning- induced. that is, a similar-souding form is selected because it has a similar meaning to the target one. (THORNBURY, 2007, p. 30)

Deixe uma resposta

Preencha os seus dados abaixo ou clique em um ícone para log in:

Logotipo do WordPress.com

Você está comentando utilizando sua conta WordPress.com. Sair / Alterar )

Imagem do Twitter

Você está comentando utilizando sua conta Twitter. Sair / Alterar )

Foto do Facebook

Você está comentando utilizando sua conta Facebook. Sair / Alterar )

Foto do Google+

Você está comentando utilizando sua conta Google+. Sair / Alterar )

Conectando a %s