MOTIVATING ACTIVE PARTICIPATION OF PRIMARY SCHOOLCHILDREN IN DIGITAL ONLINE TECHNOLOGIES FOR CREATIVE OPPORTUNITIES THROUGH MULTIMEDIA

A mistura de realidade com jogos educativos pode contribuir para o aprendizado da criança. (4)

As atividades devem ser desafiadoras e empolgantes. (4)

Os jogos devem promover:

1. The children learned
– new knowledge
– new technology skills
– improved generic skills
– improved social skills.
2. Game playing stimulated other work such as artwork, acting, writing and video making.
3. Teachers believe that games do allow them to achieve their intended learning outcomes.
4. In half of the schools involved, teachers cite evidence that children remembered what they had learned through game playing, although other schools were not sure of this or didn’t know.
5. Children who do not respond well in the traditional classroom setting often emerged as positive and enthusiastic learners in the context of the games.
6. It is critical to manage the amount of time which teachers have to devote to the development, customisation and deployment of games if their potential for enhancing children’s learning experiences are to be realised. This issue of time also applies, but in a different way, to the deployment of this type of game. Time could not always be found during school hours to play the game. Embedding the
game in the curriculum proved relatively easy for teachers, but embedding the game into the school timetable was not.
7. While there are great benefits to encouraging learning outside the walls of the school, we observed directly, and it was reported to us, that children’s safety is a major issue.
8. One of the barriers to learning which we observed was poor design of mobile devices and of applications, and network/GPS failures. Many, many small complaints were made during the eMapps.com games about all these.
9. The evidence which we gathered suggests that, when the concept is carefully explained to them, parents are supportive of this kind of learning.
10. It was clear from our observations and from the responses of teachers that the children enjoyed playing the games and, as a result, were highly motivated both to participate and to complete their assignments. (4-5)

Teoria da colaboração comunicativa entre professores e alunos, focados no diálogo e na construção do conhecimento. (7)

Jogos devem contar sempre com regras e são passíveis de observação e interpretação (o elemento construtivita). O entendimento sobre a interação para o aprendizado humano é essencial para o desenvolvimento de novas ferramentas de aprendizagem. A bases teóricas são fundamentais na elaboração de design dos jogos e dos métodos avaliativos. (8)

System
This dimension concerns aspects of the national schooling system that are largely outside the control of the individual school, but which affect what happens in schools,
for example:
• National and regional education policy
• National and regional ICT initiatives
• The legal context
• The curriculum
• External examinations
• Teacher education, workforce supply and employment contracts and conditions
• Educational content supply and market
• Allocation of funding between schools, region and state.

Institutional
In this dimension we consider the impact of project outputs on the school as a whole, and vice versa: the effect of whole-school constraints on the project, for example:
• The timetable
• Buildings and physical spaces
• Deployment of computers, access/equity issues
• Leadership and school management
• Sharing, collaboration and communication within the school
• Roles and responsibilities of personnel
• The level of e-maturity of the school and the contribution of the project towards it
• The ‘school ethos’
• Widening learning beyond the classroom, e.g. informal learning, involvement of
home and local community and international collaboration

Pedagogical
This aspect covers the micro-level of teaching and learning, at the individual teacher, student, lesson and class level, for example:
• The impact on teaching and learning inside and outside the classroom
• Use of resources by teachers and learners
• Learners:
o Whether the project changed the way in which students learn and if so, how and to what extent?
o Whether new approaches emerged, e.g. student autonomy;
collaboration/communication with peers and others, locally and globally; locations of use, school and home
• Teachers:
o Short-term/long-term change in pedagogical approach, skills and
attitudes of teachers
o Transferability beyond the duration and boundaries of the project
o Experiences in specific curriculum subjects
It is this pedagogical part of the framework that is the main focus in this Report.

Technical
This component is about the technology used in the school and the technical performance of project outputs in real situations, e.g.:
• Use in real settings
• The user interface
• Training and support requirements
• Installation
• Integration with legacy provision.

Economic
This component brings together financial issues for schools and government, e.g.:
• Purchase
• Set-up costs
• Usage costs
• Wider costs incurred, e.g. teacher time
• Scalability.

Cultural / linguistic
This is an important but often neglected aspect. It covers issues related to different political and educational cultures across European countries and specific linguistic concerns.
The scope of the area includes:
• Localisation: Is the project output easy to adapt for use in other countries,
languages and cultures?
• Support for multiple languages and facilitating communication in a common language
• Intercultural
o What aspects of national or local educational culture does the project support best?
o What aspects of national or local educational culture does the project support badly or not at all?
o What difficulties arose in implementing the project in different
educational cultures (regional or national) and how were these overcome if at all?
• Trans-national collaboration
o Does the project facilitate trans-national collaboration and if so what are its strengths
o Could the project be adapted to facilitate trans-national collaboration. If so how and if not, why not?
• Cultures in education (e.g. attitudes to experimentation and innovation, the ethos of the profession, public service versus private sector and the market)
• Cultures in other stakeholders (including children, researchers, technical
(9-10)

Perceber quão relevante o jogo é para a fixação de determinado conteúdo pode fazer toda a diferença. Além disso, o tempo disponível para que o professor se adapte ao funcionalismo do jogo e com os métodos que produzirão os melhores resultados fazem a diferença. (12)

Prensky (2001), in a major contribution to the literature, suggested that games engage learners in at least twelve different, though related, ways. They:
1. are fun to play, giving enjoyment and pleasure
2. are a form of play, giving passionate involvement
3. have rules, and thus provide structure to activities
4. have goals, and thus motivate
5. are interactive, so that players are active, doing rather than just receiving
6. have outcomes and associated feedback, and thus provide learning
7. are adaptive, providing flow
8. have win states, providing gratification
9. have conflicts, competitions, challenges and opposition, thus raising levels of adrenaline (in the ‘fight or flee’ response)
10. require problem solving, thus promoting creativity
11. may be interactive, so requiring social skills
12. have a storyline and character representation, thus promoting emotional involvement.
(12-13)

Motivation
It has been noted that when children are supplied with mobile devices they are keen to take charge of their learning, and become independent learners. At the same time motivation to learn seems to increase, and they enjoy working collaboratively with other
children; indeed one researcher noted that when teachers intervene, the children become much quieter and more passive.
Mobile devices enable children to learn wherever they are. If it is more appropriate for them to learn in the town library, or a shop, café or a bench beside the river, they can take their work with them. They can also communicate with teachers, learners and
experts in other places in real time. Their learning is not limited to the resources of the classroom. If they feel like learning (even though they would almost certainly not express it in that way) they can do so wherever they are. (13)

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