How to present vocabulary (Chapter 5) (How to teach vocabulary- Scott Thornbury, 2007)

There is the questuion of how many words to present. This will depend on the following factors:

* the levelof the learners
* the learners´likely familiarity with the words
* the difficulty of the items
* their ‘teachability’
* whether items are being learned for production or for recognition only. (THORNBURY, 2007, pgs. 76-77)

Ordem de apresentação:
SEQUENCE
* meaning first, then form, or
* form first, the meaning.
(THORNBURY, op. cit, pgs. 76-77)

MEANS
* translation
* real things
* pictures
* actions/ gestures
* definitions
* situations

PRESENTATION OF THE WORDS
* SPOKEN FORM or WRIITEN FORM
(THORNBURY, op. cit, pgs. 77)

Translation hs the advantage of being the most direct route to a word´s meaning. (THORNBURY, op. cit, pgs. 77)

It is therefore very economical, and especually suitable for dealing with ncidental vocabulary that may crop up in a lesson. (THORNBURY, op. cit, pg. 77)

Of course, reliance on real objects, illustration, or demonstration, is limited. It is one thing to mine a chicken, but quite another to physically represent the meaning of a word like intuition or become or trustworthy. (THORNBURY, op. cit, pg. 81)

Quando não existem materiais palpáveis o professor pode ensinar usando outras palavras: utilizando uma situação exemplo, dando exemplo de frases gerais, dando sinônimos/antônimos ou uma definição bem ampla. (THORNBURY, op. cit, pg. 81)

Allow the students as many hearings of he sentences as they think they need before they are confident enough to venture an answer. (THORNBURY, op. cit, pg. 82)

More elaborate definitions, such as those in dictionaries, require more effort on the part of the both teacher and learner. Lexicographers (dictinary writers) spend a great deal of time gonising over definitions, so there is no reason to think that teachers will find them any easier. Fortunatelly, learners´ dictionaries phrase their definitions in language that offers teachers a reliable model, should they need one. (THORNBURY, op. cit, pg. 83)

Having established the meaning of a new word, the teacher can model it using listening drills. A drill is any repetition of a short chunk of language. (THORNBURY, op. cit, pg. 83)

The rationale underlying elicitation is that:
* it actively involves the learners in the lesson
* it maximises speaking opportunities
* it keeps the learners alert and attentive
* it challenges better learner who might otherwise ´turn off´
* it acts as a way of checking the learners´developing understanding
* in the case of form-first presentation it encourages learners to use contextual clues
(THORNBURY, op. cit, pgs. 87-88)

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